C. H. Albert, B. Rayfield, M. Dumitru, and A. Gonzalez, Applying network theory to prioritize multispecies habitat networks that are robust to climate and land-use change, Conserv. Biol, vol.31, pp.1383-1396, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01681596

B. Baiser, J. D. Olden, S. Record, J. L. Lockwood, and M. L. Mckinney, Pattern and process of biotic homogenization in the New Pangaea, Proc. R. Soc. B, vol.279, pp.4772-4777, 2012.

J. Bengtsson, Applied (meta)community ecology: diversity and ecosystem services at the intersection of local and regional processes, Community Ecology: Processes, Models, and Applications, pp.115-130, 2009.

A. J. Bohonak and D. G. Jenkins, Ecological and evolutionary significance of dispersal by freshwater invertebrates, Ecol. Lett, vol.6, pp.783-796, 2003.

U. Brose and H. Hillebrand, Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in dynamics landscapes, Proc. R. Soc. B, vol.371, 2016.

M. Cabeza, Habitat loss and connectivity of reserve networks in probability approaches to reserve design, Ecol. Lett, vol.6, pp.665-672, 2003.

D. W. Cash, W. N. Adger, F. Berkes, P. Garden, L. Lebel et al., Scale and cross-scale dynamics: governance and information in a multilevel world, Ecol. Soc, vol.11, 2006.

J. M. Chase and T. M. Knight, Scale-dependent effect sizes of ecological drivers on biodiversity: why standardized sampling is not enough, Ecol. Lett, vol.16, pp.17-26, 2013.

S. S. Crawford, Salmonine introductions to the Laurentian Great Lakes: an historical review and evaluation of ecological effects, Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aquat. Sci, p.132, 2001.

E. P. Economo, Biodiversity conservation in metacommunity networks: linking pattern and persistence, Am. Nat, vol.177, pp.167-180, 2011.

C. Emer, M. Galetti, M. A. Pizo, P. R. Guimarães, S. Moraes et al., Seed-dispersal interactions in fragmented landscapes-a metanetwork approach, Ecol. Lett, vol.21, pp.484-493, 2018.

H. Fabritius, A. Jokinen, and M. Cabeza, Metapopulation perspective to institutional fit: maintenance of dynamic bitat networks, Ecol. Soc, vol.22, p.30, 2017.

L. Fahrig, Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst, vol.34, pp.487-515, 2003.

B. Fournier, N. Mouquet, M. A. Leibold, and D. Gravel, An integrative framework of coexistence mechanisms in competitive metacommunities, Ecography, vol.40, pp.630-641, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01928702

J. Franklin, Long-range Transport of Chemicals in the Environment, 2006.

L. A. Garibaldi, Wild pollinators enhance fruit set of crops regardless of honey bee abundance, Science, vol.339, pp.1608-1611, 2013.

C. X. Garzon-lopez, P. A. Jansen, S. A. Bohlman, A. Ordonez, and H. Olff, Effects of sampling scale on patterns of habitat association in tropical trees, J. Veg. Sci, vol.25, pp.349-362, 2014.

I. Gounand, E. Harvey, C. J. Little, and F. Altermatt, Meta-ecosystems 2.0: rooting the theory into the field, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.33, pp.36-46, 2018.

R. Q. Grafton, R. Hilborn, D. Squires, M. Tait, and . Williams, Handbook of Marine Fisheries Conservation and Management, 2010.

I. Hanski, A practical model of metapopulation dynamics, J. Anim. Ecol, vol.63, pp.151-162, 1994.

I. Hanski, Metapopulation theory, its use and misuse, Basic Appl. Ecology, vol.5, pp.225-229, 2004.

T. J. Haxton and C. S. Findlay, Meta-analysis of the impacts of water management on aquatic communities, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci, vol.65, pp.437-447, 2008.

J. B. Heffernan, Macrosystems ecology: understanding ecological patterns and processes at continental scales, Front. Ecol. Environ, vol.12, pp.5-14, 2014.

O. Hoegh-guldberg, L. Hughes, S. Mcintyre, D. B. Lindenmayer, C. Parmesan et al., Assisted colonization and rapid climate change, Science, vol.321, pp.345-346, 2008.

J. G. Howeth, Native species dispersal reduces community invasibility by increasing species richness and biotic resistance, J. Anim. Ecol, vol.86, pp.1380-1393, 2017.

J. M. Hughes, Constraints on recovery: using molecular methods to study connectivity of aquatic biota in rivers and streams, Freshwater Biol, vol.52, pp.616-631, 2007.

, IUCN Guidelines for the Prevention of Biodiversity Loss Caused by Alien Invasive Species, 2000.

D. J. Janetski, D. T. Chaloner, A. H. Moerke, R. R. Rediske, J. P. O'keefe et al., Resident fishes display elevated organic pollutants in salmon spawning streams of the Great Lakes, Environ. Sci. Technol, vol.46, pp.8035-8043, 2012.

A. C. Keyel, J. L. Gerstenlauer, and K. Wiegand, SpatialDemography: a spatially explicit, stage-structured, metacommunity model, Ecography, vol.39, pp.1129-1137, 2016.

M. A. Leibold and J. Chase, , 2017.

M. A. Leibold, J. M. Chase, and S. K. Ernest, Community assembly and the functioning of ecosystems: how metacommunity processes alter ecosystems attributes, Ecology, vol.98, pp.909-919, 2017.

M. A. Leibold, M. Holyoak, N. Mouquet, P. Amarasekare, J. M. Chase et al., The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology, Ecol. Lett, vol.7, pp.601-613, 2004.

R. Levins, Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneityfor biological control, Bull. Entomol. Soc. Am, vol.15, pp.237-240, 1969.

D. B. Lindenmayer and J. Fischer, Habitat Fragmentation and Landscape Change. An Ecological and Conservation Synthesis, 2006.

D. M. Lodge, Risk analysis and bioeconomics of invasive species to inform policy, and management, Ann. Rev. Environ. Resour, vol.41, pp.453-488, 2016.

J. B. Logue, N. Mouquet, H. Peter, and H. Hillebrand, Empirical approaches to metacommunities: a review and comparison with theory, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.26, pp.482-491, 2011.

M. Loreau, N. Mouquet, and R. D. Holt, Meta-ecosystems: a theoretical framework for a spatial ecosystem ecology, Ecol. Lett, vol.6, pp.673-679, 2003.

J. Marleau, F. Guichard, and M. Loreau, Meta-ecosystem dynamics and functioning on finite spatial networks, Proc. R. Soc. B, vol.281, 2014.

, MEA (Millenium Ecosystem Assessment), 2005a. Current State and Trends

, Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses, Biodiversity, vol.3, 2005.

, Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses. Wood, Fuelwood, and Non-wood Forest Products, vol.3, 2005.

, Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses, Nutrient Management, vol.3, 2005.

, Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses, Waste Management, Processing and Detoxification, vol.3, 2005.

, Ecosystems and human well-being: policy responses, Climate Change, vol.3, 2005.

A. Moilanen and M. Cabeza, Single-species dynamic site selection, Ecol. Appl, vol.12, pp.913-926, 2002.

D. Montoya, L. Rogers, and J. Memmott, Emerging perspectives in the restoration of biodiversity-based ecosystem services, Trends Ecol. Evol, vol.27, pp.666-672, 2012.

L. A. Morandin and C. Kremer, Hedgerow restoration promotes pollinator populations and exports native bees to adjacent fields, Ecol. Appl, vol.23, pp.829-839, 2013.

C. Moritz and R. Agudo, The future of species under climate change: resilience or decline?, Science, vol.341, pp.504-508, 2013.

N. Mouquet and M. Loreau, Community patterns in source-sink metacommunities, Am. Nat, vol.162, pp.544-557, 2003.

N. Mouquet, D. Gravel, F. Massol, and V. Calcagno, Extending the concept of keystone species to communities and ecosystems, Ecol. Lett, vol.16, pp.1-8, 2013.

T. Munkemuller, Scale decisions can reverse conclusions on community assembly processes, Global Ecol. Biogeogr, vol.23, pp.620-632, 2014.

J. Norberg, M. C. Urban, M. Vellend, C. A. Klausmeier, and N. Loeuille, Eco-evolutionary responses of biodiversity to climate change, Nat. Clim. Change, vol.2, pp.747-751, 2012.

M. A. Palmer, K. L. Hondula, and B. J. Koch, Ecological restoration of streams and rivers: shifting strategies and shifting goals, Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst, vol.45, pp.24-69, 2014.

S. M. Parkyn and B. J. Smith, Dispersal constraints for stream invertebrates: setting realistic timescales for biodiversity restoration, Environ. Manag, vol.48, pp.602-614, 2011.

G. T. Pecl, Biodiversity redistribution under climate change: Impacts on ecosystems and human well-being, Science, vol.31, p.9214, 2017.

G. A. Polis and M. E. Power, Food Webs at the Landscape Level, 2004.

H. R. Pulliam, Sources, sinks, and population regulation, Am. Nat, vol.132, pp.652-661, 1988.

K. Riibak, T. Reitalu, R. Tamme, A. Helm, and P. Gerhold, Dark diversity in dry calcareous grasslands is determined by dispersal ability and stress-tolerance, Ecography, vol.38, pp.713-721, 2014.

L. Schiesari, M. A. Leibold, and G. A. Burton, Metacommunities, metaecosystems, and the environmental fate of chemical contaminants, J. Appl. Ecol, vol.55, pp.1553-1563, 2017.

H. Seebens, M. T. Gastner, and B. Blasius, The risk of marine bioinvasion caused by global shipping, Ecol. Lett, vol.16, pp.782-790, 2013.

C. O. Sferra, J. L. Hart, and J. G. Howeth, Habitat age influences metacommunity assembly and species richness in successional pond ecosystems, vol.8, p.1871, 2017.

J. Sitters, C. L. Atkinson, N. Guelzow, S. Znamenskiy, K. Bengtsson et al., Spatial stoichiometry: cross-ecosystem material flows and their impact on recipient ecosystems and organisms, Oikos, vol.124, pp.920-930, 2015.

D. S. Slocombe, Defining goals and criteria for ecosystem-based management, Environ. Manag, vol.22, pp.483-493, 1998.

S. A. Stranko, R. H. Hilderbrand, and M. A. Palmer, Comparing the fish and benthic macroinvertebrate diversity of restored urban streams to reference streams, Restor. Ecol, vol.20, pp.747-755, 2012.

C. M. Swan and B. L. Brown, Metacommunity theory meets restoration: isolation may mediate how ecological communities respond to stream restoration, Ecol. Appl, vol.27, pp.2209-2219, 2017.

J. Tews, U. Brose, V. Grimm, K. Tielbörger, M. C. Wichmann et al., Animal species diversity driven by habitat heterogeneity/diversity: the importance of keystone structures, J. Biogeogr, vol.31, pp.79-92, 2004.

B. L. Turner, R. E. Kasperson, W. B. Meyer, K. M. Dow, D. Golding et al., Two types of global environmental change: definitional and spatial scale issues in their human dimensions, Global Environ. Change, vol.1, pp.14-22, 1990.

A. J. Van-teeffelen, C. C. Vos, and P. Opdam, Species in a dynamic world: consequences of habitat network dynamics on conservation planning, Biol. Conserv, vol.153, pp.239-253, 2012.

J. A. Wiens, Scaling in ecology, Funct. Ecol, vol.3, pp.385-397, 1989.

D. S. Wilson, Complex interactions in metacommunities, with implications for biodiversity and higher levels of selection, Ecology, vol.73, 1984.