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Journal Articles International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology Year : 2015

Editorial Disease of Adrenal Glands


The adrenal gland has been historically an object of interest and scientific curiosity. This is also due to its very heterogeneous structure, number of hormones, complex neural innervation, and multiple and different physiological functions. The adrenal gland also entails an outstanding example of paracrine interactions occurring between histogenetically different tissues as the cortex and the medulla. This special issue is a great opportunity for the reader to learn the latest and emerging findings on the pathophysiol-ogy, diagnosis, and treatment of the adrenal glands disorders. The issue provides a variety of excellent articles covering a broad and contemporary spectrum of aspects of the diseases of the adrenal gland. Of particular interest and novelty is the interplay between hormones of the adrenal glands and other organs, such as the adipose tissue, the endothelium, the bone, and even the brain. In addition to the well-established effects on lipid and glucose metabolism, the hormones of the adrenal glands display a fascinating cross talk with the adipose tissue [1– 3]. The interaction between the adrenals and adipokines is extensively discussed by A. Y. Kargi and G. Iacobellis in a comprehensive and updated review paper. The potential of the fat depot surrounding the adrenal tumors to act like a brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a rapidly emerging topic that will certainly deserve further attention and investigation [4]. Interestingly the authors provided a theoretical basis for potential future pharmacological interventions aimed at adrenal hormone targets in the adipose tissue. Primary aldosteronism is the most common endocrine cause of arterial hypertension. It can cause excess damage to the organs that are target of hypertension and higher cardiometabolic risk [5]. This contention was supported by previous experimental data obtained by Karl Weber's group in rats infused with aldosterone, which exhibited hypercalciuria and raised parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels [6], and, more importantly, by findings in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma who also showed elevated serum PTH levels that were then normalized by adrenalectomy [7]. The effect of the adrenal hormones on bone metabolism in patients with primary aldosteronism is nicely addressed by L. Petramala et al. The authors sought to test the hypothesis that hyperaldosteronism may influence mineral homeostasis through higher urinary calcium excretion leading eventually to secondary hyperparathyroidism. Of further interest, G. Mazzocchi et al. showed that PTH stimulates aldosterone secretion in a concentration-dependent manner [8], a finding that was complemented by the demonstration of the miner-alocorticoid receptor in the human parathyroid cells [9]. It is well established that a substantial amount of sodium is bound to proteoglycans of bone, connective tissue, and cartilage and that the osmotic force created by the high sodium concentration maintains the high water content in the latter tissue, allowing it to withstand high pressures during exercise [10]. In this special issue P. Alonso et al. further expand on the relationships between the adrenal gland and the skeleton by showing a reduction in the bone mineral density
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hal-01233115 , version 1 (24-11-2015)



Gianluca Iacobellis, Gian Paolo Rossi, Frederic Castinetti, Claudio Letizia. Editorial Disease of Adrenal Glands. International Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology, 2015, 403521, ⟨10.1155/2015/403521⟩. ⟨hal-01233115⟩


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