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Journal Articles Pathogens Year : 2022

Emergent and Neglected Equine Filariosis in Egypt: Species Diversity and Host Immune Response

Abstract

Equine filariosis (EF) is a neglected vector-borne disease caused by nematode species belonging to the Onchocercidae and Setariidae families. Aside from their zoonotic potential, some species are responsible for serious health problems in equids worldwide, leading to significant economic difficulties. Here, we molecularly investigated equine blood samples (320 horses and 109 donkeys from Egypt) and four adult worms isolated from the peritoneal cavity of 5 out of the 94 slaughtered donkeys. In addition, quantitative enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISAs) targeting circulating cytokines were used to identify whether the immunological profile of the infected animals is a Th1 (i.e., INF-gamma as indicator) or Th2 (i.e., IL-5 and IL-10 as indicators) response type. Overall, 13.8% and 0.3% of the donkeys and horses, respectively, were scored as positive for filaroid DNA. The 18S phylogeny revealed the occurrence of three different filaroid species, identified here as Mansonella (Tetrapetalonema) sp., Setaria digitata and Dirofilaria repens. Th1 (INF-gamma and IL-5) and Th2 (IL-10) immune response types were identified in equines infected with S. digitata and Mansonella (T.) sp., respectively. These results provide new data on the species diversity of EF in Egypt and extend knowledge of the downregulation of the protective immune response by the potentially zoonotic Mansonella (T) sp. There is an urgent need to implement control measures to preserve equine health and limit the propagation of these vector-borne filaroids in Egypt.
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hal-03948730 , version 1 (20-01-2023)

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Faten a M Abo-Aziza, Seham H M Hendawy, Hend H a M Abdullah, Amira El Namaky, Younes Laidoudi, et al.. Emergent and Neglected Equine Filariosis in Egypt: Species Diversity and Host Immune Response. Pathogens, 2022, 11 (9), pp.979. ⟨10.3390/pathogens11090979⟩. ⟨hal-03948730⟩
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