Real-time metagenomics-based diagnosis of community-acquired meningitis: A prospective series, southern France - Aix-Marseille Université Access content directly
Journal Articles EBioMedicine Year : 2022

Real-time metagenomics-based diagnosis of community-acquired meningitis: A prospective series, southern France


Background: Point-Of-Care (POC) diagnosis of life-threatening community-acquired meningitis currently relies on multiplexed RT-PCR assays, that lack genotyping and antibiotic susceptibility profiling. We assessed the usefulness of real-time metagenomics (RTM) directly applied to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for the identification, typing and susceptibility profiling of pathogens responsible for community-acquired meningitis. Methods: A series of 52 CSF samples from patients suspected of having community-acquired meningitis, were investigated at POC by direct RTM in parallel to routine real-time multiplex PCR (RT-PCR) and bacterial culture, for the detection of pathogens. RTM-generated sequences were blasted in real-time against an in-house database incorporating the panel of 12 most prevalent pathogens and against NCBI using EPI2ME online software, for pathogen identification. In-silico antibiogram and genotype prediction were determined using the ResFinder bio-tool and MLST online software. Findings: Over eight months, routine multiplex RT-PCR yielded 49/52 positive CSFs, including 21 Streptococcus pneumoniae, nine Neisseria meningitidis, eight Haemophilus influenzae, three Streptococcus agalactiae, three Herpesvirus-1, two Listeria monocytogenes, and one each of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Varicella-Zoster Virus. Parallel RTM agreed with the results of 47/52 CSFs and revealed two discordant multiplex RT-PCR false positives, one H. influenzae and one S. pneumoniae. Both multiplex RT-PCR and RTM agreed on the negativity of three CSFs. While multiplex RT-PCR routinely took 90 min, RTM took 120 min, although the pipeline analysis detected the pathogen genome after 20 min of sequencing in 33 CSF samples; and after two hours in 14 additional CSFs; yielding> 50% genome coverage in 19 CSFs. RTM identified 14 pathogen genotypes, including a majority of H. influenzae b, N. meningitidis B and S. pneumoniae 11A and 3A. In all 16 susceptible cultured bacteria, the in-silico antibiogram agreed with the in-vitro antibiogram in 10 cases, available within 48 h in routine bacteriology. Interpretation: In addition to pathogen detection, RTM applied to CSF samples offered supplementary information on bacterial profiling and genotyping. These data provide the proof-of-concept that RTM could be implemented in a POC laboratory for one-shot diagnostic and genomic surveillance of pathogens responsible for life-threatening meningitis.
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hal-03949337 , version 1 (07-04-2023)


Attribution - NonCommercial - NoDerivatives



Madjid Morsli, Agathe Boudet, Quentin Kerharo, Robin Stephan, Florian Salipante, et al.. Real-time metagenomics-based diagnosis of community-acquired meningitis: A prospective series, southern France. EBioMedicine, 2022, 84, pp.104247. ⟨10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104247⟩. ⟨hal-03949337⟩
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