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Journal Articles Nuclear Fusion Year : 2022

Operating a full tungsten actively cooled tokamak: overview of WEST first phase of operation

J. Bucalossi , J. Achard , O. Agullo , T. Alarcon , L. Allegretti , H. Ancher , G. Antar , S. Antusch , V. Anzallo , C. Arnas , D. Arranger , J.F. Artaud , M.H. Aumeunier , S.G. Baek , X. Bai , J. Balbin , C. Balorin , T. Barbui , A. Barbuti , J. Barlerin , V. Basiuk , T. Batal , O. Baulaigue , A. Bec , M. Bécoulet , E. Benoit , E. Benard , J.M. Benard , N. Bertelli , E. Bertrand , P. Beyer , J. Bielecki , P. Bienvenu , R. Bisson , V. Bobkov , G. Bodner , C. Bottereau , C. Bouchand , F. Bouquey , C. Bourdelle , J. Bourg , S. Brezinsek , F. Brochard , C. Brun , V. Bruno , H. Bufferand , A. Bureau , S. Burles , Y. Camenen , B. Cantone , E. Caprin , S. Carpentier , G. Caulier , N. Chanet , O. Chellai , Y. Chen , M. Chernyshova , P. Chmielewski , W. Choe , A. Chomiczewska , G. Ciraolo , F. Clairet , J. Coenen , L. Colas , G. Colledani , J. Colnel , P. Coquillat , E. Corbel , Y. Corre , S. Costea , X. Courtois , T. Czarski , R. Daniel , J. Daumas , M. de Combarieu , G. de Temmerman , P. de Vries , C. Dechelle , F. Deguara , R. Dejarnac , J.M. Delaplanche , L.F. Delgado-Aparicio , E. Delmas , L. Delpech , C. Desgranges , P. Devynck , S. Di Genova , R. Diab , A. Diallo , M. Diez , G. Dif-Pradalier , M. Dimitrova , B. Ding , T. Dittmar , L. Doceul , M. Domenes , D. Douai , H. Dougnac , X. Duan , L. Dubus , N. Dumas , R. Dumont , F. Durand , A. Durif , A. Durocher , F. Durodié , A. Ekedahl , D. Elbeze , S. Ertmer , A. Escarguel , F. Escourbiac , K. Ezato , F. Faisse , N. Faure , N. Fedorczak , P. Fejoz , C. Fenzi-Bonizec , F. Ferlay , M. Firdaouss , L. Fleury , D. Flouquet , A. Gallo , Y. Gao , X. Garbet , J. Garcia , J.L. Gardarein , L. Gargiulo , P. Garibaldi , S. Garitta , J. Gaspar (1) , E. Gauthier , P. Gavila , S. Gazzotti , F. Gely , M. Geynet , S. Gharafi , P. Ghendrih , I. Giacalone , C. Gil , S. Ginoux , S. Girard , E. Giroux , G. Giruzzi , C. Goletto , M. Goniche , T. Gray , E. Grelier , H. Greuner , E. Grigore , C. Grisolia , A. Grosjean , A. Grosman , D. Guibert , D. Guilhem , C. Guillemaut , B. Guillermin , R. Guirlet , J.P. Gunn , Y. Gunsu , T. Gyergyek , A. Hakola , J. Harris , J.C. Hatchressian , W. Helou , P. Hennequin , C. Hernandez , K. Hill , J. Hillairet , T. Hirai , G.T. Hoang , M. Houry , T. Hutter , F. Imbeaux , N. Imbert , I. Ivanova-Stanik , R. Jalageas , A. Jardin , L. Jaubert , G. Jiolat , A. Jonas , P. Joubert , A. Kirschner , C. Klepper , M. Komm , M. Koubiti , J. Kovacic , M. Kozeiha , K. Krieger , K. Krol , B. Lacroix , L. Laguardia , V. Lamaison , H. Laqua , C. Lau , Y. Lausenaz , R. Lé , M. Le Bohec , N. Lefevre , N. Lemoine , E. Lerche , M. Lewerentz , Y. Li , M. Li , A. Liang , P. Linczuk , C. Linsmeier , M. Lipa , X. Litaudon , X. Liu , J. Llorens , T. Loarer , A. Loarte , T. Loewenhoff , G. Lombard , J. Lore , P. Lorenzetto , P. Lotte , M. Lozano , B. Lu , R. Lunsford , G. Luo , P. Magaud , P. Maget , J.F. Mahieu , P. Maini , P. Malard , K. Malinowski , P. Manas , L. Manenc , Y. Marandet , J.L. Marechal , S. Marek , C. Martin , E. Martin , A. Martinez , P. Martino , D. Mazon , P. Messina , L. Meunier , D. Midou , Y. Mineo , M. Missilian , R. Mitteau , B. Mitu , P. Mollard , V. Moncada , T. Mondiere , J. Morales , M. Moreau , P. Moreau , Y Moudden , G. Moureau , D. Mouyon , M. Muraglia , A. Nagy , T. Nakano , E. Nardon , A. Neff , F. Nespoli , J. Nichols , S. Nicollet , R. Nouailletas , M. Ono , V. Ostuni , C. Parish , H. Park , H. Parrat , J.Y. Pascal , B. Pégourié , F.P. Pellissier , Y. Peneliau , M. Peret , Y. Peysson , E. Pignoly , G. Pintsuk , R. Pitts , C. Pocheau , C. Portafaix , M. Poulos , P. Prochet , A. Puig Sitjes , M. Rasinski , G. Raup , X. Regal-Mezin , C. Reux , B. Riccardi , J. Rice , M. Richou , F. Rigollet , H. Roche , J. Romazanov , C. Ruset , R. Sabot , A. Saille , R. Sakamoto , T. Salmon , F. Samaille , A. Santagiustina , B. Santraine , Y. Sarazin , E. Serre , H. Shin , S. Shiraiwai , Ja. Signoret , Je. Signoret , A. Simonin , O. Skalli Fettachi , Y. Song , A. Spring , P. Spuig , S. Sridhar , B. Stratton , C. Talatizi , P. Tamain , R. Tatali , M. Téna , A. Torre , L. Toulouse , J.M. Travère , W. Treutterer , E. Tsitrone , E. Unterberg , G. Urbanczyk , D. van Eester , G. van Rooij , S. Vartanian , J.M. Verger , L. Vermare , D. Vézinet , N. Vignal , B. Vincent , S. Vives , D. Volpe , G. Wallace , E. Wang , L. Wang , Yi. Wang , Yo. Wang , T. Wauters , B. Wirth , M. Wirtz , A. Wojenski , J. Wright , M. Xu , Q. Yang , H. Yang , B. Zago , B. Zhang , X. Zhang , X. Zou
J. Bucalossi
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J. Achard
  • Function : Author
O. Agullo
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T. Alarcon
  • Function : Author
L. Allegretti
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H. Ancher
  • Function : Author
G. Antar
  • Function : Author
S. Antusch
  • Function : Author
V. Anzallo
  • Function : Author
C. Arnas
  • Function : Author
D. Arranger
  • Function : Author
J.F. Artaud
  • Function : Author
M.H. Aumeunier
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S.G. Baek
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X. Bai
  • Function : Author
J. Balbin
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C. Balorin
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T. Barbui
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A. Barbuti
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J. Barlerin
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V. Basiuk
  • Function : Author
T. Batal
  • Function : Author
O. Baulaigue
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A. Bec
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M. Bécoulet
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E. Benoit
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E. Benard
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J.M. Benard
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N. Bertelli
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E. Bertrand
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P. Beyer
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J. Bielecki
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P. Bienvenu
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R. Bisson
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V. Bobkov
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G. Bodner
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C. Bottereau
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C. Bouchand
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F. Bouquey
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C. Bourdelle
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J. Bourg
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S. Brezinsek
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F. Brochard
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C. Brun
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V. Bruno
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H. Bufferand
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A. Bureau
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S. Burles
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Y. Camenen
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B. Cantone
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E. Caprin
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S. Carpentier
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G. Caulier
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N. Chanet
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O. Chellai
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Y. Chen
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M. Chernyshova
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P. Chmielewski
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W. Choe
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A. Chomiczewska
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G. Ciraolo
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F. Clairet
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J. Coenen
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L. Colas
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G. Colledani
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J. Colnel
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P. Coquillat
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E. Corbel
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Y. Corre
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S. Costea
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X. Courtois
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T. Czarski
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R. Daniel
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J. Daumas
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M. de Combarieu
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G. de Temmerman
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P. de Vries
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C. Dechelle
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F. Deguara
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R. Dejarnac
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J.M. Delaplanche
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L.F. Delgado-Aparicio
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E. Delmas
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L. Delpech
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C. Desgranges
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P. Devynck
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S. Di Genova
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R. Diab
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A. Diallo
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M. Diez
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G. Dif-Pradalier
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M. Dimitrova
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B. Ding
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T. Dittmar
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L. Doceul
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M. Domenes
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D. Douai
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H. Dougnac
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X. Duan
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L. Dubus
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N. Dumas
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R. Dumont
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F. Durand
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A. Durif
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A. Durocher
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F. Durodié
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A. Ekedahl
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D. Elbeze
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S. Ertmer
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A. Escarguel
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F. Escourbiac
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K. Ezato
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F. Faisse
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N. Faure
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N. Fedorczak
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P. Fejoz
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C. Fenzi-Bonizec
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F. Ferlay
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M. Firdaouss
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L. Fleury
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D. Flouquet
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A. Gallo
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J. Garcia
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J.L. Gardarein
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L. Gargiulo
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P. Garibaldi
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S. Garitta
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E. Gauthier
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P. Gavila
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S. Gazzotti
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F. Gely
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M. Geynet
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S. Gharafi
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P. Ghendrih
I. Giacalone
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C. Gil
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S. Ginoux
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S. Girard
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E. Giroux
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G. Giruzzi
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C. Goletto
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M. Goniche
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T. Gray
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H. Greuner
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E. Grigore
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C. Grisolia
A. Grosjean
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D. Guibert
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D. Guilhem
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G.T. Hoang
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M. Houry
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T. Hutter
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F. Imbeaux
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N. Imbert
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P. Messina
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L. Meunier
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D. Midou
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Y. Mineo
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M. Missilian
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R. Mitteau
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B. Mitu
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P. Mollard
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V. Moncada
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T. Mondiere
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J. Morales
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M. Moreau
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C. Portafaix
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Ja. Signoret
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Je. Signoret
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A. Simonin
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O. Skalli Fettachi
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Y. Song
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A. Spring
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P. Spuig
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S. Sridhar
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B. Stratton
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C. Talatizi
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P. Tamain
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R. Tatali
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M. Téna
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A. Torre
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L. Toulouse
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J.M. Travère
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W. Treutterer
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E. Tsitrone
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E. Unterberg
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G. Urbanczyk
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D. van Eester
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G. van Rooij
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S. Vartanian
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J.M. Verger
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L. Vermare
D. Vézinet
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N. Vignal
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B. Vincent
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S. Vives
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D. Volpe
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G. Wallace
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E. Wang
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L. Wang
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Yi. Wang
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Yo. Wang
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T. Wauters
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B. Wirth
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M. Wirtz
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A. Wojenski
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J. Wright
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M. Xu
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Q. Yang
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H. Yang
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B. Zago
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B. Zhang
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X. Zhang
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X. Zou
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Abstract

Abstract WEST is an MA class superconducting, actively cooled, full tungsten (W) tokamak, designed to operate in long pulses up to 1000 s. In support of ITER operation and DEMO conceptual activities, key missions of WEST are: (i) qualification of high heat flux plasma-facing components in integrating both technological and physics aspects in relevant heat and particle exhaust conditions, particularly for the tungsten monoblocks foreseen in ITER divertor; (ii) integrated steady-state operation at high confinement, with a focus on power exhaust issues. During the phase 1 of operation (2017–2020), a set of actively cooled ITER-grade plasma facing unit prototypes was integrated into the inertially cooled W coated startup lower divertor. Up to 8.8 MW of RF power has been coupled to the plasma and divertor heat flux of up to 6 MW m −2 were reached. Long pulse operation was started, using the upper actively cooled divertor, with a discharge of about 1 min achieved. This paper gives an overview of the results achieved in phase 1. Perspectives for phase 2, operating with the full capability of the device with the complete ITER-grade actively cooled lower divertor, are also described.

Dates and versions

hal-04029596 , version 1 (15-03-2023)

Identifiers

Cite

J. Bucalossi, J. Achard, O. Agullo, T. Alarcon, L. Allegretti, et al.. Operating a full tungsten actively cooled tokamak: overview of WEST first phase of operation. Nuclear Fusion, 2022, 62 (4), pp.042007. ⟨10.1088/1741-4326/ac2525⟩. ⟨hal-04029596⟩
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